Out of all the software I normally use, LaTeX is usually one of the most difficult to remember. However, I have found package combination that gets most - if not all - of the packages I would normally used for LaTeX.
First, I use TeXstudio as a graphical front-end for LateX. Thankfully, they provide .deb packages on their site. First, download the latest version. There is a version in the apt repository, but it is older.
After downloading and installing TeXstudio, you may notice that LaTeX, bibtex and all the other packages you likely need to be able to produce documents is unavailable. Almost everything can be found in the following packages:
apt-get install texlive texlive-latex-extra texlive-latex-recommended latex-xcolor pgf
If you prefer things like Biber, it can also be found in the repository. However, it will likely take more tweaking to get working properly.
That's all it takes to get a fully functional LaTeX editor.